December 30, 2017

Welcome !

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Welcome to the small news of the Darumapedia !

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. Joys of Japan - Main Gallery .   


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .
- Introduction -

. 河童 / かっぱ / カッパ - Kappa, the Water Goblin of Japan! .
- Introduction -

. Edo shokunin 江戸職人 craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .



. Mingei 民芸 Folk Art of Japan .

. Fudō Myō-ō, Fudoo Myoo-Oo 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja – Fudo Myoo .




- and many many more !

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August 21, 2017

MINGEI - clay dolls from Shimane

https://omamorifromjapan.blogspot.jp/2011/07/shimane-folk-toys.html

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Hamada town 浜田


Nagahama ningyoo 長浜人形 / 長浜土人形 clay dolls from Nagahama
This region is famous for its contact with Korea since ancient times. Nagahama dolls have a history of more than 400 years, when Korean craftsmen came to Japan. They used the localclay to make these dolls. Topics are dolls for the Girls and Boys festival, Nagahama Tenjin sama, the 12 zodiac animals and others.


釣鐘抱え金時 Kintoki carrying a temple bell


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Izumo town 出雲市


tsuchi ningyoo 出雲土人形clay dolls

... shiro Tenjin 白天神 white Tenjin sama from Hooki 伯耆(ほうき)Hoki
It was decorated on the Doll festival on March 3 for a boy who was born in the year before.



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出雲今市土人形 Izumo Imaichi clay dolls



They have been made since the Taisho period around 1915. Dolls of Tenjin Sama for the Seasonal Boy's Festival were quite common in the region. So the craftsmen used their skills for other dolls too, applying 胡粉 white gofun powder.


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August 20, 2017

TANOKAMI - Legend about Inoko

https://darumamuseumgallery.blogspot.jp/2009/12/santen-marishiten.html

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observance kigo for early winter
(the day of the boar in the tenth lunar month)
This is a custom more commen in Western Japan

inoko, i no ko 亥の子 (いのこ) young wild boar
i no hi matsuri 亥の日祭(いのひまつり)festival on the day of the boar
i no kami matsuri 亥の神祭(いのかみまつり)festival for the deity of the wild boar

inoko mochi 亥の子餅(いのこもち)rice cakes for the wild boar festival
(also a kigo for late autumn)
They were prepared in the hour of the boar and eaten as a harvest thanksgiving. This a custom coming from China. Here the deity honored is also seen as the God of the Fields (ta no kami).
Many tea masters close the summer hearth on this day.

inoko ishi 亥の子石(いのこいし)stone
inokozuki 亥の子突(いのこづき)
gencho 玄猪(げんちょ)
gogenjoo 御厳重(ごげんじゅう)
..... genshoo 厳祥(げんしょう)
onarikiri おなりきり

Inoko is a festival on 旧暦10月の亥の日 the day of the wild boar in the tenth lunar month. On this day 田の神 the Ta no Kami - God of the Fields goes back to the mountains.
While pounding the earth with a special mallet on long strings, the children sing:
「祝わんものは鬼うめ蛇うめ、角の生えた子うめ」

"Today we celebrate, bury the Oni demon in the ground, bury the snakes in the ground, bury demon children with horns in the ground."

On this day people are also not allowed to go to the fields to pick daikon 大根 large radish.

. oni 鬼 the Demons of Japan .



Interpreting Japanese Society: Anthropological Approaches - edited by Joy Hendry
- books.google.co : inoko -


. Ta no Kami 田の神 Tanokami, God of the Fields .

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tookanya 十日夜 (とおかんや) night of the tenth
(tenth day of the tenth lunar month)
celebrated in Eastern and Northern Japan
(nowadays around November 15)
It was a full-moon day of old.

A harvest thanksgiving celebration for the God of the Fields (ta no kami)


. God of the Fields 田の神 ta no kami  


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August 17, 2017

Fwd: [Kappa - The Kappapedia] onibi demon fire



[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .
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onibi 鬼火 "demon fire", "devil's fire"

. "devil's fire", onibi 鬼火 Will-o'-the-wisp .
"fox fire", kitsunebi 狐火 (きつねび) //
- kigo for all winter -

. janjanbi じゃんじゃん火 / ジャンジャン火 Janjan fire .
- Legends from Nara

. soogenbi 宗源火 Sogenbi / ubagabi 姥ケ火 / 姥ヶ火 in Kyoto .

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- quote -
Onibi (鬼火) is a type of atmospheric ghost light in legends of Japan. According to folklore, they are the spirits born from the corpses of humans and animals, and are also said to be resentful people that have become fire and appeared. Also, sometimes the words "will-o'-wisp" or "jack-o'-lantern" are translated into Japanese as "onibi."



- Outline
According to the Wakan Sansai Zue written in the Edo Period, it was a blue light like a pine torchlight, and several onibi would gather together, and humans who come close would have their spirit sucked out. Also, from the illustration in the same Zue, it has been guessed to have a size from about 2 or 3 centimeters in diameter to about 20 or 30 centimeters, and to float in the air about 1 or 2 meters from the ground. According to Yasumori Negishi, in the essay "Mimibukuro" from the Edo period, in chapter 10 "Onibi no Koto," there was an anecdote about an onibi that appeared above Hakone mountain that split into two and flew around, gathered together again, and furthermore split several times.
Nowadays, people have advanced several theories about their appearance and features.

- Appearance
They are generally blue as stated previously, but there are some that are bluish white, red, and yellow. For their size, there are some as small as a candle flame, to ones about as large as a human, to some that even span several meters.
- Number
Sometimes there only 1 or 2 of them appear, and also times when 20 to 30 if them would appear at once, and even times when countless onibi would burn and disappear all night long.
- Times of frequent appearance
They usually appear from spring to summer. They often appear on days of rain.
- Places of frequent appearance
They commonly appear in watery areas like wetlands, and also in forests, prairies, and graveyards, and they often appear in places surrounded by natural features, but rarely they appear in towns as well.
- Heat
The are some that, when touched, do not feel hot like a fire, but also some that would burn things with heat like real fire.

- - - - - Types of onibi - - - - -

As onibi are thought of as a type of atmospheric ghost light, there are ones like the below. Other than these, there is also the shiranui, the koemonbi, the janjanbi, and the tenka among others. There is a theory that the kitsunebi is also a kind of onibi, but there is also the opinion that strictly speaking, they are different from onibi.

Asobibi (遊火, lit. "play fire")
It is an onibi that appears below the castle and above the sea in Kōchi, Kōchi Prefecture and Mitani Mountain. One would think that it appeared very close, just for it to fly far away, and when one thinks that it has split apart several times, it would once again all come together. It is said to be of no particular harm to humans.
Igebo
It is what onibi are called in the Watarai District, Mie Prefecture.
Inka (陰火, lit. "shadow fire")
It is an onibi that would appear together when a ghost or yōkai appears.
Kazedama (風玉, lit. "wind ball")
It is an onibi of the Ibigawa, Ibi district, Gifu Prefecture. In storms, it would appear as a spherical ball of fire. It would be about as big as a personal tray, and it gives off bright light. In the typhoon of Meiji 30 (1897), this kazedama appeared from the mountain and floated in the air several times.
Sarakazoe (皿数え, lit. "count plate")
It is an onibi that appeared in the Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki by Sekien Toriyama. In the Banchō Sarayashiki known from ghost stories, Okiku's spirit became appeared as an inka ("shadow fire") from the well, and was depicted as counting plates.
Sōgenbi (叢原火 or 宗源火, lit. "religion source fire")
It was an onibi in Kyoto in Sekien Toriyama's Gazu Hyakki Yagyō. It was stated to be a monk who once stole from the Jizōdō in Mibu-dera who received Buddhist punishment and became an onibi, and the anguishing face of the priest would float inside the fire. The name also appeared in the "Shinotogibōko," a collection of ghost stories from the Edo period.
Hidama (火魂, lit. "fire spirit")
An onibi from the Okinawa Prefecture. It ordinarily lives in the kitchen behind the charcoal extinguisher, but it is said to become a bird-like shape and fly around, and make things catch on fire.
Wataribishaku (渡柄杓, lit. "transversing ladle")
An onibi from Chii village, Kitakuwada District, Kyoto Prefecture (later, Miyama, now Nantan). It appears in mountain villages, and is a bluish white ball of fire that lightly floats in the air. It is said to have an appearance like a hishaku (ladle), but it is not that it actually looks like the ladle tool, but rather that it appeared to be pulling a long and thin tail, which was compared to a ladle as a metaphor.
Kitsunebi (狐火, lit. "fox fire")
It is a mysterious fire that has created various legends, there is the theory that a bone the fox is holding in its mouth is glowing. Kimimori Sarashina from Michi explained it as a refraction of light that occurs near river beds. Sometimes kitsunebi are considered a type of onibi.

- Considerations
First, considering how the details about onibi from eyewitness testimony do not match each other, onibi can be thought of as a collective term for several kinds of mysterious light phenomenon. Since they frequently appear during days of rain, even though the "bi" (fire) is in its name, they have been surmised to be different from simply the flames of combustion, and is a different type of luminescent body. It is especially of note that in the past, these phenomena were not strange.
In China in the BC era,
it was said that "from the blood of human and animals, phosphorus and oni fire (onibi) comes." The character 燐 at that time in China could also mean the luminescence of fireflies, triboelectricity, and was not a word that indicated the chemical element "phosphorus".
Meanwhile, in Japan,
according to the explanation in the "Wakan Sansai Zue", for humans, horses, and cattle die in battle and stain the ground with blood, the onibi are what their spirits turn into after several years and months.
One century after the "Wakan Sansai Zue"
in the 19th century and afterwards in Japan, as the first to speak of them, they were mentioned in Shūkichi Arai's literary work "Fushigi Benmō", stating, "the corpses of those who are buried have their phosphorus turned into onibi." This interpretation was supported until the 1920s, and dictionaries would state this in the Shōwa period and beyond.
Sankyō Kanda,
a biologist of luminescent animals, found phosphorus in 1696, and as he knew that human bodies also had this phosphorus, in Japan, the character 燐 was applied to it, and thus it can be guessed that it was mixed in with the hint from China about the relation between onibi and phosphorus. In other words, it could be surmised that when corpses decay, the phosphorus in phosphoric acid would give off light. In this way, many of the onibi would be explained, but there also remain many testimonies that do not match with the theory that of illumination from phosphorus.
After that,
there is a theory that it is not phosphorus itself, but rather the spontaneous combustion of phosphine, or the theory that it is burning methane produced from the decay of the corpse, and also a theory that hydrogen sulfide is produced from the decay and becomes the source of the onibi, and also ones that would be defined in modern science as a type of plasma. Since they often appear in days of rain, there are scientists that would explain that as Saint Elmo's fire (plasma phenomenon). The physicist Yoshihiko Ōtsuki also advanced the theory that these mysterious fires are caused by plasma.It has also been pointed out that for the lights that would appear far in the middle of darkness, that if they are able to move by suggestion, then there is a possibility that they could simply be related to optical illusion phenomena.
Each of these theories
has its own merits and demerits, and since the onibi legends themselves are of various kinds, it would be impossible to conclusively explain all of the onibi with a single theory.
Furthermore,
they are frequently confused with hitodama and kitsunebi, and as there are many different theories to explain them, and since the true nature of these onibi is unknown, there is no real clear distinction between them.
- reference source : wikipedia -


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す 駿河の北浜 鬼火の怪 - SU - Sugaru no Kitahama - Onibi no Kai
江戸妖怪かるた Edo Yokai Karuta - card game


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

............................................................................ Aichi 愛知県
知多郡 Chita district  南知多町 Minami-Chita

onibi 鬼火,ashioto 足音,hanashigoe 話声,daionkyoo 大音響
尾張高野山岩屋山奥之院は、今昔を問わず修行道場として多くの人が来る。行者はいずれも三日ないし七日間断食又は火のもの断ちして、毎夜十二時から一時にかけて樹木の生い茂る真っ暗がりの堂外の諸仏を巡拝するのだが、その時、大牛が道に横たわり前進を妨げたり、幾十もの鬼火が現れたりして行の邪魔をする。また、数十人の足音や話し声が聞こえたり、屋根に大石が落ちるような大音響などがして、修行の途中で逃げる者もいる。

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
23 to explore (01)

- reference - 鬼火 -

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. - - - Join the Onipedia friends on facebook ! - - - .

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. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .

. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

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- #onibi -
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Posted By Gabi Greve to Kappa - The Kappapedia on 8/16/2017 02:01:00 pm

August 15, 2017

ONI - Kibi no Makibi

https://darumapilgrim.blogspot.jp/2005/12/kentooshi.html

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Kibi no Makibi 吉備真備 (695 – 775)



Kibi no Makibi (吉備真備 695–775) was a Japanese scholar and noble during the Nara period. Also known as Kibi Daijin. Born in Bitchu Province (present-day Kurashiki, Okayama Prefecture) as Shimotsumichi Asomi, he came from a line of local elites. Kibi was the name of the town or area he came from.

In 716, he traveled to China to study, and is supposed to have brought back a number of things, introducing to Japan for the first time the game of go, the art of embroidery, and the biwa (a kind of lute). He became famous for these journeys in China with Abe no Nakamaro and the monk Genbō.

In 737, he received promotion to the junior fifth rank. In 751, at the senior fourth rank (upper grade), he received an appointment as vice-ambassador to the T'ang Dynasty and traveled to China the following year, returning to Japan in 753.

After spending some years in Kyūshū as the assistant administrator of Dazaifu (the principal governmental post on that island), he returned to Nara for appointment in 764 to the leadership of the project to construct Tōdai-ji. Promotion to the junior third rank followed, as well as appointment to head an army to put down the uprising by Fujiwara no Nakamaro. Reaching the second rank in 765, he took the offices of Major Councillor, then Minister of the Right. In 770, he supported a losing candidate for the throne and submitted his resignation from office, but the court accepted only his resignation from military office, and retained him as Minister of the Right. He finally resigned in 771, devoting himself to the study of Confucian principles and their applications in Japanese administration. Kibi died in 775.

Kibi has sometimes been credited with inventing the katakana phonetic syllabary and writing system.

吉備大臣入唐絵 Kibi Daijin Nyuto E
A late 12th century narrative handscroll in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston depicting Kibi's journey to China is one of the earliest of all Japanese narrative pictorial handscrolls (e-maki) known to be extant. It is believed to have been commissioned to help support the prestige of a school of divination which claimed connections to Kibi. Its purchase by the museum in 1932 directly led to the strengthening of Japanese laws against the removal of cultural properties of particular importance from the country.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- - - - - detail of the scroll with an Oni demon

When Abe no Nakamaro was sent to China, he died there and became an Oni.
When Kibi no Makibi went to China and was in trouble, this Japanese Oni came to his help.





. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - Index - .

- - - - - This Oni is also on the cover of a book:


Japanese Demon Lore:
Oni from Ancient Times to the Present

Noriko Reider




吉備大臣入唐絵巻知られざる古代中世 一 千年史
倉西裕子 Kuranishi Yuko (1963 - )

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August 13, 2017

LEGENDS - fox legend from Fukui

https://gokurakuparadies.blogspot.jp/2017/08/taizan-fukun-hell-king.html

Taizan Fukun 泰山府君 / 太山府君 King of Hell
Taizan-O 太山王(泰山王) King Taizan


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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

................................................................................. Fukui 福井県 
遠敷郡 Onyū - Onyu district 名田庄村 Natashomura

Osaizangitsune おさいざん狐 a fox named O-Saizan
On a rock above the shrine 加茂神社 Kamo Jinja there lives a 白狐 white fox called O-Saizan. He/she is the protector of Taizan Fukun.
The 狐の火の玉 fire ball of the fox can fly from 天壇 the heavenly abode of Taizan Fukun all the way to this Kamo Shrine.

加茂神社 Kamo Jinja
福井県大飯郡おおい町名田庄納田終127-4



After the Ōnin War 応仁の乱 Onin no Ran in 1467, members of 土御門家 the clan of Tsuchimmikado (from a branch-family of Abe no Seimei 阿倍晴明 (921 - 1005)) fled here. They were strong believers in the power of Kamo Jinja shrine in Kyoto and spread the belief in this shrine in the region.
In the village there are still many thatched-roof houses that have retained their form for centuries.


. Tsuchimikado, Tsuchi no Mikado 土御門天皇 (1196 – 1231) .
- reigned from 1198 to 1210.
- and the famous Onmyōji, Abe no Seimei 阿倍晴明 (921 - 1005)

. Kyoto - The Kamo Shrine complex .
Shimogamo Shrine 下鴨神社 and Kamigamo Shrine 上賀茂神社


. kitsune densetsu 狐 伝説 fox legends .

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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. Pilgrimages to Fudo Temples 不動明王巡礼
Fudo Myo-O Junrei - Fudo Pilgrims - INTRODUCTION .



. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #taizanfukun -
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Fwd: [Kappa - The Kappapedia] onigokko onibarai


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .
- for tsuina, see below -
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onigokko, oni-gokko 鬼ごっこ game of tag
onigoto 鬼ごと


Tag is a playground game that involves two or more players chasing other players in an attempt to "tag" or touch them, usually with their hands.
This game was already popular in the Edo period, in a version called :
ko o toro ko toro 子をとろ子とろ / 子を捕ろ子捕ろ "get hold of a child, get it!"


守貞漫稿 Morisada Manko

One player is the Oni, one is the parent and all the others are children. The children try to hide behind the parent. The Oni tries to grab the last child in line. The parent spreads out his arms and tries to ward off the Oni.
As they run, the row of children begins to sway like a serpent or a whirlpool.


source : Waseda University Library

幼童遊び子をとろ子とろ osana asobi ko o toro ko toro
歌川広重 Utagawa Hiroshige

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This game has a long history, all the way to Hell,
where 地蔵菩薩 Jizo Bosatsu is trying to lead the poor souls out of hell, past the Oni guardian.



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During the Heian period, there was a ritual at the court called
onibarai no gishiki 鬼払いの儀式 "driving out the demons"
oniyarai 鬼遣らい

which is seen as the beginning of Onigokko.
This ritual was performed as a prayer for 五穀豊穣 gokoku hojo, the fertility of the five grains and thus a good harvest.
It was a ritual do drive out eki oni, eki ki 疫鬼(えきき)〔エキオニ〕 Oni bringing disease.

There was also a chasing game called
hifukume ひふくめ - ヒ+フ+クメ : One Two and Three
久米(来目)とは「三(みつ).hi fu kume

- quote -
In the beginning of the Heian period, Hososhi who appears and runs around at new year eve's court function "Oni-yarai" in the greater palace is considered the origin of any stories about "Oni", which stands for a devil. His manner reminds us of the familiar "Onigokko" that the "Oni" chases children, while "Oni" is emphasized with objection, it is overlapped as one of the old "Onigokko" named "Kakure-Oni" (Hidden Oni).

By contrast, in the Edo period, there was "Hifukume" who appears in Kottoshu, Santokyo-den (an old literature).

In the middle of Heian period, when a Buddhist monk called Eshin Sozu Genshin preaches people, he used a format that Jizo Bosatsu protects against "Oni" who chases children.
Whether or no, these three elements of "Parent", "Children", "Oni" hold an important fact in the game, and it is easy to imagine that the game was spread around for the children naturally.

And now, "Hifukume" comes down to "Kotoro kotoro" more than it was expected.


Here is a picture of a swallow playing "Kotorokotoro", drawn by Hiroshige Ando, from late Edo period when Ukiyoe (Japanese woodblock prints) established one culture. It is a surprising fact that Ukiyoe artist Hiroshige drew it, but fresh looking swallow's faces are attractive.

There is almost no children who know about "Kotorokotoro" as a game nowadays. I have a sense of crisis about the situation that "Onigokko" which came down from the Heian period and in which parents protect children, or "Onigokko" that is a tool to know community and the way of contacting people to people is disappearing even though it is a most well-known one.


- Internatinal Onigokko Association - Onigotter Japan -
- reference source : onigokko.or.jp - 鬼ごっこ協会公式へようこそ

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. Genshin 源信 Eshin Soozu 恵心僧都 Eshin Sozu (942-1017).


. Oni yarai 秩父神社の鬼やらい Driving out the Demons at Chichibu Shrine .
oniyarai, oni-yarai 鬼やらい

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tsuina 追儺 "demon exorcism"
Devil-Expelling Ceremony



source : takara.city.matsumoto.nagano.jp
Tsuina mask from Matsumoto, Nagano
from the temple 牛伏寺


tsuina rituals were performed by the Emperor and the royal princes since the early Heian period at the court and important Shrines on 大晦日(旧暦12月30日 the last day of the Old Year, the 30th day of the 12th lunar month.
They were also called
onibarai no gishiki 鬼払いの儀式, 「oniyarai, oni yarai 鬼やらい」(鬼遣らい、鬼儺などとも表記)
「nayarai, na yarai 儺(な)やらい」

Setsubun has its origins in tsuina (追儺), a Chinese custom introduced to Japan in the eighth century.
. Setsubun rituals 節分、February 03  .

hoosooshi, hōsōshi 方相氏(ほうそうし)Hososhi, demon exorcist
ootoneri 大舎人(おおとねり))
shinshi 侲子(しんし) helping the Hososhi

The Hososhi wears a special robe called hoo 袍(ほう) and a mask with four eyes.


source : popeye.sakura.ne.jp/kyoto
mask amulet from Shrine 吉田神社 Yoshida Jinja
The Hososhi with the original golden mask with four red eyes was not only driving out the demons, but also the 疫神 Deity who brought illness.
In his right hand he held 矛 a three-pronged lancet, in the left hand 楯 a shield.
The demons were followed by men with bows and arrows to drive them out.

In the beginning the Hososhi was expelling the demons, but since the 9th century, things begun to change and he was seen as the Oni to be driven out.

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吉田神社追儺 Yoshida Jinja no Tsuina

- quote -
Eliminating Demons, Praying for Happiness
"Tsuina-shiki" at Yoshida Jinja Shrine in Kyoto

"Tsuina-shiki" or a traditional ceremony for warding off evil was held the evening of February 2, the eve of "Setsubun," or the day before spring begins, at Yoshida Jinja Shrine, in Sakyo Ward, Kyoto. Watching violent demons being exorcized in the bitter chill, visitors prayed for happiness this year.

Tsuina-shiki
has its roots in the ceremony originally performed in the Imperial Court during the Heian Period. Also called "Oni Yarai," it is observed in many temples and shrines around the day of "Setsubun."
Shortly after 6:00 p.m.,
three demons, which symbolize anger, sorrow and agony, appeared in front of the main shrine. As they roared and brandished iron clubs, young children's cries rang from among the visitors. "Hososhi," or a person who is believed to possess the power to discern evil demons with his four eyes, hunted the demons down. Finally, visitors cheered excitedly as court nobles drove them off by shooting arrows.
- source : e.kyoto-np.jp/news... -



onna setsubun 女節分Setsubun for women

. Yoshida Jinja 吉田神社 - Kyoto .

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- quote -
- - - - - Oni
... According to Zeami's Fushikaden, oni appearing in Noh drama are either vengeful spirits (onryō) who possess human beings, or demons of hell. As the visible forms of oni were represented as misshapen and weird beings, popular iconography of oni was influenced by graphic portrayals of hell demons and "hungry ghosts," as well as by the four-eyed Chinese zhuīnuó (Jp. tsuina) masks worn by the demon exorcists called fangxiàng (Jp. hōsōshi).
Such rites of "demon exorcism" or tsuina were incorporated into the Buddhist rites of Shushōe and Shunie (Omizutori) held early in the New Year; these rites featured exorcisms of demons using the power of Buddhist tutelaries such as Bishamon and heavenly bodhisattvas (hiten).
These rites became popular observances on the last day of winter (setsubun), and resulted in the formation of stereotypical demon images such as Shutendōji.
- source : Kawamura Kunimitsu, Kokugakuin 2005 -

During the tsuina rituals, people call out three times
oni yaroo 「鬼やろう」 (Demons get out!)
Especially in the Shrines of Kyoto, and the Heian Jingu .


source : discoverkyoto.com/event-calendar/february

... At 14:00, people representing warriors, onmyōji diviners, and the demon quelling oni Hōsōshi participate in the Daina no Gi, an exorcism once performed at the Imperial Palace in the Heian period. Men wearing fearsome ogre masks burst into the shrine and "terrorize" the assembled people from the courtyard, making their way to the main hall veranda where the oni leader does a victorious dance. However, shrine parishioners appear to banish the oni with lucky beans in a tradition called mamemaki (bean throwing), chasing them back out the shrine gates shouting "oni wa soto, fuku wa uchi" ("bad luck out, good luck in").
The Daina-no-Gi is a re-creating the Tsuina ceremony.

祭文が読み上げられると方相氏が前に進み、矛と盾を打ち、「鬼やろう」と3度繰り返します。
- reference and photos : milky.geocities.jp/kyotonosato/setubun -



方相氏(平安神宮) Hososhi from Heian Jingu


. Heian Jinguu 平安神宮 Shrine Heian Jingu - Kyoto .


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- quote -
The Ritual Firing of Arrows at the beginning of the year
..... The Azusa Yumi (catalpa wood bow) was an essential tool in Japanese Shamanism for excorcizing evil, and shooting ritual arrows was an important part of the Imperial Court`s New Year`s Eve Purification Rituals during the Heian Period- The Tsuina ( which was introduced from China).
- source : blog.alientimes.org... yabusame -

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- quote -
Tsuinashiki 追儺式 / ついなしき
2 Hachiman-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsushi, Shizuoka
At Hachimangu Shrine in Naka Ward, Hamamatsu City, the Tsuinashiki is held on February 2nd every year. This ceremony, in which an embodiment of the gods called the housoushi drives out evil spirits that bring misfortune, was adopted from China, and as a reproduction of the ritual performed imperial court in the Heian Period, it is the basis of the modern day Setsubun.
... The Tsuinashiki begins with a Shinto ritual, following which red, blue, and yellow oni appear, rampaging through the grounds swinging around metal clubs.
... The housoushi (Hososhi) and the children supporting him, played by local children, chase the oni around the shrine grounds and drive them away. The housoushi is armed with a trident and shield, and wears a four-eyed mask and a red costume.

Finally,
a character representing an Imperial messenger fires an arrow called the tsuina from the top of the shrine into the grounds. This arrow drives away evil spirits, so the spectators bustle about the grounds trying to find it and pick it up.
- source : inhamamatsu.com/culture/cat627/2/tsuinashiki... -

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

................................................................................. Saga 佐賀県
藤津郡 Fujitsu district 太良町 Tara

In the town district 竹崎地区 Takezaki there is a special Demon ritual on the 5th and 6th day of the New Year.
Shusei-E Oni Matsuri 修正会鬼祭 / Hadaka matsuri 裸祭 "Naked Festival"
Young men not yet married gather in a meeting place called Oni no imiya 鬼之忌屋.
Men already married gather at the 宿老宿.
Among the young men four are selected as 鬼副(オンゼイ) Onizei.
They perform a Tsuina ritual, 鬼追い Onioi and special dances.



- quote -
Local legend has it that a force from the south once tried to invade Tara. The villagers wore demon masks to scare the intruders, and won the skirmish.
-
First Saturday and Sunday in January
Takezaki Avalokitesvara revision meeting oni festival (竹崎観世音修正会鬼祭 takezaki kanzeon shūseikai oni matsuri):
A hadaka matsuri at Takezaki Kanzeon temple wherein men dressed in loincloths try to stop a man dressed as an oni, who carries a box. The men then pull at the oni and shred the red kimono the oni wears. There is also a dance by boys in costumes.
- source : wikipedia -

- reference source : 竹崎観世音寺修正会鬼祭 -
Takezaki Kanzeon-Ji Shusho-E Oni Matsuri

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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. eki oni 〔エキオニ〕// eki ki, eki-ki 疫鬼(えきき) Oni bringing disease .
Yakubyoogami 疫病神 Yakubyogami, Deity of Diseases // ekijin, yakujin 疫神


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source : ameblo.jp/onigokko-kyoukai/entry


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

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千葉県 Chiba

During the Setsubun ritual of Onibabari 鬼払い driving out the demons,
there are three Oni, ao-oni 青鬼 Blue Demon, aka-oni 赤鬼 Red Demon and kuro-oni 黒鬼 Black demon.
People who take over the part of these three Oni will not experience and evil or bad influence, will not be called to the military and will not be the target of shooting. So there are many young men who want to become Oni during the Setsubun rituals.




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新潟県 Niigata  笹神村 Sasakamimura  

Once upon a time
the girls were playing tag. One of the girls felt a strange pain in her shin and when she looked, the flesh had split and she was almost bleeding. She tried to be brave and walked all the way to the bridge. At the bridge blood was suddenly flowinig out of her leg.
It must have been a kamaitachi かまいたち "sickle weasel".

. kamaitachi 鎌鼬 cut of the skin by a cold sucking wind .
- kigo for winter
and also a strange Yokai monster.


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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
- reference - 鬼ごっこ -

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. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - .

. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

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Posted By Gabi Greve to Kappa - The Kappapedia on 4/14/2017 01:27:00 pm

KAPPA - Go Nagai Demons


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Go Nagai 永井豪 Nagai Go - Demon Paintings



- quote -
Go Nagai
Born under the name Kiyoshi and growing up in a somewhat large family (he was 4th out of 5 brothers), Go Nagai has went from college student to internationally famous and genre creating integral piece of anime history.

Demons (デーモン, demon, or 悪魔, akuma)
or sometimes known as Devils, show up many times in Go Nagai's works, especially in the series Devilman, Demon Lord Dante, and Devil Lady. They are powerful beings with unique abilities and appearances.



- History
Demons ruled the earth in the ancient past millions of years ago. Living off their instincts they slaughtered one another for the sake of power. God came to exterminate the race from the Earth and sent his Angels to do so. Satan felt pity for the Demons and rebelled against God to save them. After a long battle the Demons were sent into hibernation until the time came for them to rise up and defeat God in the final battle. After they awoken they find pests called humans to have conquered their Earth. Therefore Satan and the Demons declare war on the humans. In Demon Lord Dante the Demons were the first intelligent tribe of humans to establish themselves on the prehistoric Earth. Using technology they fused themselves with machinery and dinosaurs to become the Devils they are today.

- Biology
Proned to violence Demons are aggressive towards all living creatures, including other Demons. This is because whenever a Demon kills another creature he merges with their body and takes over their mind. All their powers and knowledge become one with the Demon. Inanimate objects can also be used in the construction of the Demon's body, such as rocks, missiles, and guns.Humans on the other hand are harder to control because of reason. Therefore a Black Sabbath must be invoked where the humans run off on instinct, if not a Demon trying to merge with a human dies along with it's host. However if a human with a pure heart is invaded by a Demon the Demon's soul is suppressed and the human obtains the Demon's body and powers without losing himself, thus becoming Devilmen.

- Gallery of his demon paintings
April 27 2009
- source : gonagai.wikia.com/wiki/... -


永井豪 Nagai Go
永井潔(ながい きよし)Nagai Kiyoshi (1945年9月6日 - )
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



CLICK for more manga Demon paintings.


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. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

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Posted By Gabi Greve to Kappa - The Kappapedia on 8/12/2017 01:03:00 pm

EDO - Umibe Daikumachi carpenters funadaiku

https://edoflourishing.blogspot.jp/2015/10/daiku-carpenter.html
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There was a special district in Edo where most of the carpenters lived :

Kanda daikuchoo 神田 大工町 carpenter district in Kanda
tate daikuchoo 竪大工町 (now in Uchi Kanda 内神田三丁目14番 )
yoko daikuchoo 横大工町 / minami daikuchoo 南大工町

This district was founded around 1640 in the Kanei period 寛永 and is mentioned in the
"Edo Map of Kanei 寛永江戸図".
Many carpenters who lived here worked directly for the Bakufu government for the official buildings of Edo.


source : 無涯塾日記

One famous (but fictional) character is the carpenter 吉五郎 Kichigoro in the story
三方一両損 sanbo ichiryo zon, where the famous magistrate 大岡越前守忠相 Oka Echizen is holding court.

The shop of a craftsman making the matoi 纏 standards , a pole with the fire fighters brigade mark, is also located here.
纏屋治郎右衛門 Matoiya Jiroemon

. shokuninmachi 職人町 district with craftsmen in Edo .

Now the 龍谷大学 Ryukoku University is located in this district.

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Another district where carpenters lived was



Umibedaikuchmachi 海辺大工町 Umibe Daikumachi carpenter district on the coast
Umibe Daikucho, Umibe Daiku-Cho , Umibe Daiku-machi
along the river 小名木川 Onagigawa.


Umibe is a district in 江東区 Koto Ward, next to Fukagawa.

River Onagigawa joins the Sumidagawa with the bridge 高橋 Takahashi as main access. Another bridge was 万年橋 Mannenbashi and then
the Shin-Takahashi 新高橋 New Takahashi Bridge. The bridge Takahashi (High Bridge) was build much higher than other bridges to avoid being swept away by flooding of the rivers.

After reclaiming the land the settlement along the river Onagigawa became w river port and was named Umibe Daikumachi in 1713.



Many carpenters skilled in building ships and boats came to live here, hence the name.
funadaiku 船大工 shipbuilder carpenter



The bottom of a wooden boat was often burned to make it more resistant to rotting.


source : adachi-hanga.com/ukiyo-e
歌川国芳 Utagawa Kuniyoshi
Detail from 東都三ツ股の図 Toto Mitsumata no Zu
View of Mitsumata in the Eastern Capital




. River Onagigawa 小名木川 .
and The Gyotoku Salt Fields 行徳塩田 Gyotoku enden

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- - - - - . Bashō-An 芭蕉庵 Basho-An in Fukagawa 深川 .
- Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Haiku Poet


source : homepage3.nifty.com/onihei-zue
Basho-An was near the Mannenbashi 万年橋 "Ten Thousand Year Bridge".


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August 11, 2017

ONI - eki-ki disease demons and onigani crabs

https://japanshrinestemples.blogspot.jp/2014/08/yakubyogami.html

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疫鬼 eki oni (エキオニ) // eki ki, eki-ki (えきき) Oni bringing disease
ekki 疫鬼(えっき)



source : www.emuseum.jp/detail...
Painting from the Heian period


. tsuina 追儺 "demon exorcism" rituals .

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

疫鬼 eki-ki
During epidemics people made small dolls and let them flow away in rivers, especially on the 30th day of the 6th and 12th lunar month.
The origin was the purification ritual at 伊勢神宮 Ise Jingu in the sixth lunar month.
Tsuina 疫鬼 eki-oni,家鬼 ie-oni (home-Oni) exorcist rituals were also performed at the Imperial palace.

In China it was also customary to drive out the 疫鬼 yakuki,疫神 yakugami Deity of Illness by putting an image of them on a boat and let if float away.


................................................................................. Hiroshima 広島県
三次市 Miyoshi

yakuki 疫鬼,yakugami 疫神,binbogami 貧乏神
Once upon a time
at 備後国三好鳳源寺 the temple Hogen-Ji in Miyoshi an old skinny man with white hair and a pale face wanted to come in. But the priest threw him out and the figure soon disappeared.
Around this temple there had been an epidemy, but since this event, the village had been spared any contagious disease.


................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県
浜松市 Hamamatsu

yakuja 疫邪 / yakuoni 疫鬼
Once upon a time
some people from Hamamatsu met a huge old priest of more than 180 cm hight clad in red robes, with 錫杖 a red walking staff in his left hand and 払子 a priest's fly-whisk in his left. The old priest had many disciples walking with him.
They had a session of questions and answers. The old priest opened a box he had carried and showd them a cut-off head, which gave of a very bad smell. When the villagers begun to shout in disgust, the old priest suddenly disappeared.
But the bad smell remained in their noses and many of them fell ill very soon after that meeting.

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source : ameblo.jp/blue-hiro-bigboy.....
hōsōshi 方相氏 Hososhi, demon exorcist with a mask of four eyes


寃鬼 enoki, enki ,疫鬼 eki-ki
In former times, even Tengu were seen as some kind of enoki, yuurei 寃鬼(ゆうれい) ghost.
They take over the curse of someone killed or who died unnaturally.

Legend knows that the three children of a Chinese emperor became Eki-Ki after a violent death.
In Japan they are mentioned first in a book called
儺祭詞 - なのまつりのことば Nanomatsuri no Kotoba : 穢悪伎疫鬼」きたなきおに - kitanaki oni - "dirty demons".
They were driven out at the Imperial palace with the Tsuina rituals.
They are also known in Korea.

When a person has just died and his soul is still hanging around, it might become an 魂魄 Enoki demon and visible to other people. This is also called yuurei 幽霊 a ghost.
This Enoki looks like clouds and haze. Just like weather clouds and haze can gather in the sky and the earth, the vapor of an Enoki can gather and become visible.
If someone has died a while ago and Enoki is seen, it will turn into a yookai 妖怪 apparition of a Fox or Tanuki badger.
If the soul hangs inbetween the realm of Yin and Young and becomes hardened, it is called 疫鬼 Eki-Ki, a "Disease Demon".

Once upon a time
a priest went to a bookstore to buy 易経 the I-Ching. When he read some of the hand-written comments in the book, be begun to laugh. That night he developed a fever and headache and was about to die.
Just then at the nearby home of a Master Confucianist a strange thing happened. One of his disciples, who had died some months ago, came to the gate and wanted to visit him.
He explained that after his death his wife had written some comments in the I-Ching and a priest, who had read them today and laughed in mockery, was now just about to die. He had gotten angry and knocked the priest on his head, but wanted to see his Master to have a look at the priest too. The Master suggested that his disciple would agree to have his grave built at the temple to save the priest. And indeed, the priest came back to life and begun reading the sutras for the Eki-Ki disciple.

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takebungani 武文蟹 / 武文ガニ Takebun crabs
- - - onigani 鬼蟹 demon crabs
- - - kimengani 鬼面蟹 crabs with demon faces

a kind of Heikegani 平家蟹 Crabs of the Heike clan - Heikea japonicum
... a species of crab native to Japan, with a shell that bears a pattern resembling a human face which many believed to be the face of an angry samurai hence the nickname Samurai Crab.


source : blog.livedoor.jp/ufodouji-tec_rec/archives.....

These crabs are also called
Shimamuragani 島村蟹
named after 島村武文 Shimamura Takebun

. Heikegani 平家蟹 Crabs of the Heike clan and Heike legends .


................................................................................. Hiroshima 広島県
尼崎市 Amagasaki 大物町 Daimotsucho

takebungani 武文蟹 Takebun crabs
In the port of 摂州大物浦 Daimotsu-no-Ura there are Takebun crabs, Samurai crabs.
attributed to the soul of 秦武文 Hata no Takebun, who had to kill himself in the port of Hyogo 兵庫湊 in 1331.
His Enoki demon soul eventually shape-shifted into a crab.
(They are a kind of Heikegani 平家蟹 Heike crabs, Heikea japonicum).

People hang the these crab shells at the entry of the home to prevent demons and bad luck to come it.


- and the opposite reading, another Yokai monster

kanioni, kani-oni 蟹鬼(かにおに) Crab-Demon monster


source : youkaiwiki.com/entry...


- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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https://japanshrinestemples.blogspot.jp/2014/08/yakubyogami.html